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Subsections

Fruits and Vegetables


Fibre and fish reduces the risk of Colon cancer, while red and processed meats, alcohol and low physical activity increases that risk [1]

WHO presents a summary of the results of the EPIC Project:
Colon Cancer The results of the study, together with the PLCO cohort of the NIH-NCI study, support that a diet high in fibre reduces colorectal cancer risk. The EPIC also found that consumption of red and processed meat increases colorectal cancer risk while intake of fish decreases risk. The combination of these four dietary factors (i.e. fibre, fish, red and processed meats) plays a major role in colorectal cancer aetiology in addition to alcohol intake, obesity and low physical activity.

Breath cancer Obesity and the consumption of fruit and vegetables is not associated with breath cancer risk. We found that is not associated with breast cancer risk.
Prostate cancer Prostate cancer risk is not related to fruit and vegetable consumption.
Genetic factors The group has initiated large investigations of the role of polymorphisms in genes involved in the metabolism of steroid hormones and growth factors that have a role in the aetiology of breast and prostate cancers in combination with lifestyle and metabolic factors.

Heart disease A higher intake of fruits and vegetables was found by the EIPC study to be linked to a lower risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), however, the study could not find out whether this association is causal. Also remains unclear how fruits and vegetable act to reduce heart disease risks. [2]


Red meat may increase risk of aggressive prostate cancer

Witte et al.2011 write that increased consumption of ground beef or processed meat is positively associated with aggressive prostate cancer, whereas red meat that was grilled or well done barbeque is especially aggressive.[3]

High levels of well or very well cooked ground beef were found in this study to double the risk of aggressive prostate cancer and low consumption raised the risk to 1.5 compared to men who ate none. However, consumption of rare or medium cooked ground beef was not linked to prostate cancer. The authors suggest that meat mutagens Dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]Quinoaxine(MelQx) and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo(4,5-f)qunioxaline(DiMelQx), formed during cooking meat at high temperatures. Carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCA). HCA and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) are formed in red meat at high temperatures, especially when fat and juice is burned at open fire.


Changing to Western diets high in red meat may increase risk of colon cancer of Asian population [4]

Asian populations have changed from traditional to Westernized diets high in red meat. In a study of Sotos Prieto et al 2011 higher consumption of red meat was significantly associated with a higher risk of proximal colon cancer among women and for distal colon cancer among men. The authors, however, found that processed meat did not cause colon or rectal cancer.

High red meat consumption of Spanish men leads to cardiovascular risk and obesity [5]

Sotos et al 2011 found that in the Spanish Mediterranean elderly population red meat consumption of 7.4 ± 4.7 times/week is too high, being higher in men than in women. It was associated with obesity and cardiovascular risk (CVR). Fish consumption of 4.5 ± 2.6 time/week is high and should be maintained at this level because it reduces the prevalence of diabetes.

Processed meat and type 2 diabetes [6]

A study by Lajous et al 2011 also found that high intake of processed meat, ≥5 servings/week (median, 48 g/day), was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes, compared with low intake of less than 1 serving/week (median, 5 g/day) of processed meat. Unprocessed red meat was not associated with diabetes.


Iron of red meat increase cancer risk [7]

Ward et al 2011 report that high intakes of heme and iron from meat increase the risk of esophageal and stomach cancer, these findings are associations with red meat. Iron intake from all other dietary sources were found not associated with risk of either cancer. The authors explains that heme iron can catalyse endogenous formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds.

Genotoxicity of red meat may increase colorectal cancer risk [8]

Hebels et al 2011 report that their study found that faecal water genotoxicity significantly increased in response to red meat intake.

Transcriptomic analyses revealed that activity of genes of biologic genotoxic pathway significantly correlated with the increase in fecal water resulting from red meat intake. This included modifications in DNA damage repair, cell cycle, and apoptosis pathways.

Moreover, WNT signaling and nucleosome remodeling pathways were modulated, indicating human colorectal cancer development. The WNT signaling pathway is a network of proteins best known for their roles in embryogenesis and cancer, but also involved in normal physiological processes in adult animals.

Red mead increases colorectal cancer, fish reduces the risk and poultry is not related to the disease [9]

Riboldi et al 2005 found that colorectal cancer risk increases with the intake of read meat and processed meat. However, the risk decreased intake of fish. Poultry was found not to influence risk of colorectal cancer. For subjects aged 50 years the risk is 1.71% for high of more than 160 g/d of processed meat intake, and 1.28% for less than 20 g/day of intake. For fish intake less than 10 g/d the risk is 1.86% and 1.28% for subjects with more than 80g/d of fish intake.

Low consumption of red meat and high intake of poultry and fish reduces risk of ovarian cancer Kolahdoozmf2ausc

A study of Kolahdooz and colleagues 2010 suggests that that low consumption of processed meat and higher consumption of poultry and fish are associated with reduce the risk of ovarian cancer.


Red meat and processed meat increases pancreatic cancer risk [10]

Larsson and Wolk 2012 conducted a meta-analysis of 11 prospective studies with 6643 pancreatic cancer cases. The authors found that consumption of red meat was associated with an increase in pancreatic cancer risk in men (RR=1.29), but not in women (RR=0.93) and 120g red meat per day was associated with an overall relative risk (RR=1.13), 50g per day increase in processed meat consumption was (RR=1.19).


The 2007 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research [11]

The 2007 report of the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research presented convincing evidence that red meats and processed meats are a cause of colorectal cancer. There is limited evidence suggesting that red meat is a cause of cancers of the oesophagus, lung, pancreas and endometrium. Cantonese-style salted fish is a probable cause of nasopharyngeal cancer. There is also limited evidence that animal foods that are grilled (broiled), barbecued (charbroiled), or smoked, are a cause of stomach cancer.

The report uses the term "red meat" to refer to beef, pork, lamb, and goat from domesticated animals, and the term "processed meat" to refer to meats preserved by smoking, curing, or salting, or addition of chemical preservatives.


High intake of red and processed meat associated with colorectal, colon and rectal cancer [12]

Ten recent prospective studies were assessed by Chan et al. 2011. They concluded that high intake of red and processed meat increases significantly the risk of colorectal, colon and rectal cancers, and suggest to limit these foods in dietary recommendation. Of cancer prevention.

Overall, the relative risk (RR) of colorectal cancer for the highest versus the lowest intake was 1.22 and the RR for every 100 g/day increase was 1.14, and the risk increases linearly with increasi intake of red and processed meats up to approximately 140 g/day, where the curve approaches its plateau.


Red and processed meat intake not associated with prostate cancer [13]

Alexander et al. 2012 analysed data of fifteen studies of red meat and 11 studies of processed meat. No association with high red meat consumption and total prostate cancer was observed. However a weakly association between processed meat and total prostate cancer was found but data were not conclusive. The stress that independent positive association between red or processed meat intake and prostate cancer could not be supported.

Red meat consumption increases mortality rates [14]

A study of Pan et al. 2012 supports the long ongoing hypothesis that red meat consumption increases the risk of total, CVD, and cancer mortality. The data of more than 120.000 observations and dietary habits of 2 prospective cohort studies over the course of 20-30 years demonstrate that people eating daily red meats, such as hot dogs, sausages and other processed red meats, had a 20% increase in mortality rate.

The substitutions of 1 serving of red meat per day by other foods, such as fish, poultry, nuts, legumes, low-fat dairy, and whole grains, reduces mortality risk by 7% to 19%, and 9.3% of deaths in men and 7.6% in women could be prevented when less than 0.5 servings per day (42 g/d) of red meat are consumed, estimate the authors.

Pan and colleagues also stress that adjustment for saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and heme iron accounted for some but not all of the risk of eating red meat. Thus, other mechanisms such as nontraditional risk factors may be involved, such as healthy effects of plant based foods, rich in phytochemicals, bioflavonoids replacing red meat.

Considering isolated changes in weight, blood pressure, and lipid levels in High-Fat, High-Protein, Low-Carbohydrate (HPLC) diets may underestimate the negative influence of HPLC diets on health outcomes, such as morbidity and mortality, comments Ornish 2012 He reaffirms the basis of healthy nutrition [15]:

- Little or no red meat,
- high vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, and soy products,
- low in simple and refined carbohydrates, such as sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, and white flour,
- high in omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil, flax oil,
- low in trans fats, saturated fats, and hydrogenated fats.

Effect of fruit juices

Concord grape juice may enhance memory in older people [16]

Robert Krikorian, Barbara Shukitt-Hale and colleagues 2009 claim that Concorde grape juice improved verbal learning and enhanced verbal and spatial recall in 12 older adults with memory decline but not dementia.

A previous study by Shukitt-Hale and colleagues 2006 reported that Concord grape juice appeared to reverse the course of neuronal and behavioural ageing in rats. [17]

Effect of diets rich in fuits and vegetables on cognitive function

Healthy diet does not only reduce risk of heart disease, obesity and diabetes but has a deep impact on psychiatric and neurologic conditions, such as depression and dementia. Many studies assessed the improving of cognitive function are related to this issue.

Polyphenol-rich Mediterranean diet and better cognitive function at old age []

Studies suggest that consumption of antioxidant-rich foods may reduce brain oxidative processes, responsible for cognitive decline in aged persons. Valls-Pedret et al.2012 looked at the link between antioxidant-rich foods in the Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in elderly subjects enrolled in the PREDIMED study.

The authors determined apolipoprotein E genotype, measured urinary polyphenols as intake biomarker. Cognitive function was assessed by neuropsychological tests.

Urinary polyphenols were associated with better scores in immediate verbal memory. The authors concluded that increased consumption of antioxidant-rich foods such as found in the Mediterranean diet, may reduce age-related cognitive decline.

Diet high in polyphenols, such as flavonoids consumed in midlife improves brain functions 13 years later [18]

Kesse-Guyot et al. 2012 report that high total polyphenol intake of catechins, theaflavins, flavonols, and hydroxybenzoic acids was positively associated with language and verbal memory, especially with episodic memory, but not with executive functioning. Intake of dihydrochalcones, catechins, proanthocyanidins, and flavonols exert a negative effect on executive functioning
.
The authors stress that high intake of specific polyphenols, including flavonoids and phenolic acids, found in plant-foods, may help to preserve verbal memory.

Differential effect of fruit and vegetables groups on cognitive function in SU.VI.MAX 2 cohort study [19]

A 13-years association between fruit and vegetables intake and cognitive performance of subjects which were part of the Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals 2 (SU.VI.MAX 2) cohort was assessed by Péneau et al. 2011 with controversial finding.
- Intake of fruit alone, vitamin C-rich FVs, vitamin C, and vitamin E were positively associated with verbal memory scores.
- Intake of vegetables alone, and β -carotene-rich fruit and vegetables were negatively associated with executive functioning scores.
The authors point to a possible differential effect of groups of plant-food on cognition and call for more studies to clarify these data on age-related cognitive impairment.

Blueberries improves memory in older adults [20]

Krikorian and colleagues 2012 report that juice of wild blueberries have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects because of their content of polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins. Studies associated these anthocyanins with increased neuronal signaling in brain centers, mediating memory function as well as improved glucose disposal, all of what could reduce neurodegeneration. Krikorian found in the study that nine elderly persons improved memory and neurocognitive.

Blackberries improves motor and cognitive function in aged rats [21]

The polyphenolics in fruits and vegetables have retarded and even reversed age-related decrements in motor and cognitive performance, which may be the result of the polyphenols increasing antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory levels, or by direct effects on signaling, in the brain, according to Shukitt-Hale and colleagues 2009. The authors report that a 2% blackberry-supplemented diet reversed age-related deficits in behavioural and neuronal function, improving motor performance on three tasks which rely on balance and co-ordination.

Review on berry supplementation and age-related cognitive decline [22]

Willis, Shukitt-Hale,and colleagues 2009, in a review found that antioxidant-rich berries consumed in the diet can positively impact learning and memory in the aged animal due to the direct interaction of berry polyphenols with ageing neurons, reducing the impact of stress-related cellular signals and increasing the capacity of neurons to maintain proper functioning during ageing.

Plum juice, but not dried plum powder, is effective in mitigating cognitive deficits in aged rats [23]

Shukitt-Hale and colleagues 2008 assessed the effect of supplementation of 2% of plum (Prunus domestica) as 100% juice und as plum powder. The authors found that plum juice improved working memory, whereas no improvement was noted with plum powder, compared with rats subjected to a diet without plum.

Ecology of the Amazon region endangered by worldwide acai marketing [24]

Profitable market for palm hearts and acai products exert great pressure on the Amazon ecology. The natural rainforest lands are clear-cut for mass cultivation of acai, following a project of planting 5 billion acai trees in the next 10 years.

Soy plantations, cattle farming and exotic plantations like acai endanger nature, deprive poor native population of acai as affordable food. In 2008 Marina Silva resigned as environment minister after the Amazon development project was taken away from her and given to the Harvard Professor Roberto Mangabeira Unger who wants to include the Amazon Region in one of the greatest agro-industry project ever seen. It will boost Brazilian ethanol production to replace 5% of crude oil by 20025. The sustainable use of the acai palm by the local population and indian tribes is changed to a mass-production to feed the international market. [25]

Embrapa undermining the sustainability of the Amazon Region [26]

Embrapa, a department of the Brazilian government, forces the development of acai production and export.
Embrapa says that already 200,000 km² of the region were deforested to give place for cattle farming, soy and sugar cane plantation. This is an area which is bigger than Swiss and Austria summed together. Covering such an area with a monoculture of palms repeat the errors of Indonesia and the palm oil production for biodiesel. Revenues will not benefit the local indigenous population, but enrich commercial entities from abroad. Embrapa admits that the heavy export cause shortage of acai at the local market and exploding price make it unaffordable for the poor population which used it as staple food.

Plantations are located around the Marajó Island at Cametá, Furos de Breves e Arari Ajuru, Abaetetuba, Igarapé-Miri, Ponta de Pedras, Limoeiro e Mocajuba,which account for 90% of the commercial production.

According to Embrapa the annual production of 15 thousand hectares finaced by the state, and other plantations is 160,000 Tons, but will increase as soon new plantations start to produce fruits, which is estimated to become 8 tons/hectare.

Embrapa product especifications for acai [26]

-Acai dense, or special (Type A): Pulp extracted with water. Total solids over 14%, appearance is very dense.
- Acai medium or regular (Type B): Pulp extracted with water. Total solids between 11% and 14%. Appearance is dense.
- Acai thin or popular (Tipe C) Pulp extracted with water. Total solids between 8% and 11%, appearance is less dense.

Decontamination

Decontamination with 10 to 60 minutes immersion in a solution of chlorine (20 ppm to 50 ppm active chlorine)

Pasteurisation

Pasteurisation is recommended by 80° to 85° during 10 seconds in a tubular heat exchanger. Final temperatur of the proiduct should be 5°.

Deep freezing

-18 ° a -20 ° or below.

Spay-drying

To the production of acai powder temperatures of 135 ° a 140 ° are used. Outlet temperature of the system is 85 ° a 90 °. Allied pressure is 4,9 a 6,2 kg/cm². The powder should be packed in aluminized plastic bags.

Peach-palm [27]

Peach-palm also known as pupunheira, and pupunha in Brazil. Bactris gasipaes. The fruit is frequently stewed in salted water. It is used to make compotes and jellies, or also used to make flour and edible oil. This palm is fast growing. Harvest of heart of palm can be accomplished 18 to 24 months after planting. The plant is a substitute for acai palm to produce hearts of palm. Its commercial cultivation increases environment degradation of the lower Amazon.


Date palm fruits

Production of fructose syrup from discarded Phoenix dactylifera dates: [28]

According to Chaira and colleagues 2007, about 50,000 tons of dates are discarded by sorting each year in Tunisia. The authors developed a process to use these fruits for the production of fructose rich syrups at low costs.

The invertase activity of date palm fruits from the Tunisian oasis of Gabes and Jerid were determined, whereas the Gabes variety had highest invertase activity with at least two isoforms. The invertase extracted from Korkobbi presented an optimal temperature of 45°, optimum pH of 3,5 to 4,8. Using this invertase a high fructose syrup was obtained from aqueous extract of the Deglet Nour variety during 30 minutes of incubation. The authors used invertase extracted with distilled water and concentrated by ammonium sulfate precipitation at 80% saturation.


Composition of Tunisia date [29]

Chaira and colleagues determined the chemical composition and the radical scavenging activity of flesh and pit of Deglet nour and Alig date. The total sugars may be more than 60% of the dry weight of date flesh. Dates flesh was found to be a good source of several minerals such as potassium varying between 0.61 and 0.72% (dry matter).

Date pit oil content varied between 10.13% and 12.37%. Less than 6% sugars were determined, in addition, important free radical scavenging activity were found by the authors.

Composition and quality of Tunisian date varieties [30]

Mrabet and colleagues 2008 analysed the composition of Tunisian date palm fruit varieties, taking Deglet Nour as reference. They report that the littoral varieties were very rich in reducing sugars and were high in vitamin C, while Deglet Nour was rich in sucrose and were low in vitamin C. The littoral varieties were classified as soft dates due to their moisture content. The littoral dates were rich in potassium and low in sodium.

Review of date fruit composition [31]

Al-Farsi and Lee 2008 in a review write that the date flesh is low in fat and protein but rich in sugars. Minerals are selenium, copper, potassium, and magnesium. Vitamins B-complex and C are the major vitamins in dates. The flesh is high in dietary fiber, carotenoids and phenolics. Date seeds contain higher protein as compared to the flesh, have high dietary fiber, phenolics (3942 mg/100 g) and antioxidants (80400 micromol/100 g). The authors suggest tat date seeds may be used as functional food ingredient.

Glycemic index of Omani dates [32]

Ali, Al-Kindi and Al-Said 2009 determined the nutritional quality and glycemic index of three sun-dried date varieties (Khalas, Khsab and Fardh) grown in Oman. The glycemic index (GI) ranged between 47.6 and 57.7. The authors found an iinverse correlation between the fructose fraction and the GI value of dates.

Fruit Preserves

Fruit preserves are preparations of fruits, vegetables and sugar, often canned or sealed for long-term storage. The preparation of fruit preserves today often involves adding commercial or natural pectin as a gelling agent,

Goiabada

Goiabada is a popular dessert throughout the Portuguese-speaking countries of the world, dating back to the colonial days in Brazil, where guavas (Psidium guajava) were used as a substitute for the quinces used to make marmelada (quince cheese). [33]

Marmalade

Marmelade is a fruit preserve made from the juice and peel of citrus fruits, boiled with sugar and water. The benchmark citrus fruit for marmalade production in Britain is the Seville orange from Spain, Citrus aurantium var. aurantium - thus called because it was originally only grown in Seville in Spain- because it is higher in pectin than sweet oranges and therefore gives a good set. In languages other than English, "marmalade" can mean preserves made with fruit other than citrus. Greek term melimelon, "honey fruit" was transformed into "marmelo"-for a product quinces and honey. The name originates in Portuguese, where marmelada applies chiefly to quince jam (from "marmelo", the Portuguese for quince). [34]

Bioactive phenolics in jam

Reduction of bioactive phenolics in jam during processing and storage [35]

Jam of strawberry, cherry, apricot, fig and orange is considered as a source of bioactive phenolic compounds. Rababah and colleagues 2011 report that fresh strawberry had the highest contents of total phenolics of the analysed fruits. Bioactive phenolic compounds of all fruits decreased during jam processing. Storage of strawberry and cherry jam did not reduce phenolic compounds any further during 5 month. Apricot, fig and orange jam, however reduced further the levels of phenolics during storage.

Only strawberry jam did not experienced a further drop in antioxidant activity during storage, while all other jam types were found to have it reduced during storage. The highest levels of anthocyanins were found in strawberries. A decrease of anthocyanins and pH in apricot and fig jams was found after 5 month storage, no further losses were found with other jams. The authors concluded that some of the of bioactive phenolics are lost during jam processing, however, it is still a good method to maintain these compounds during long storage. Strawberry jam performed best of all types of jams.

Bioactive phenolic content in domestically processed berrie [36]

Savikin and colleagues 2009 studied the chemical composition of domestically processed organically cultivated or wild growing berries in Serbia. The total phenolics content in fresh berries varied between 380 and 1660 mg GAE/100 g. The phenolic content decreased during the processing to jams, and storage in almost all samples, except in black currant. Processing and storage caused decrease in anthocyanin content. Frozen as well as processed berries, despite presenting losses during processing and storage, had still high levels of radical scavenging activity, even after fter 9 months of storage and presented microbiological stability.

Process and storage effect on food ellagitannins [37]

Bakkalbasi, Mentes and Artik 2009 reviewed studies related to ellagitannins and ellagic acid in fruits. Ellagic acid is a hydrolytic product of ellagitannins an give the characteristic taste to fruits.. There are controversies concerning health claims praising the antioxidant properties of ellagic acid. Despite unprecise evidence of health benefits it was sold with the claim to benefits against cancer, heart disease, and other medical problems. FDA recommended consumers should avoid ellagic classifying the claims as a fake. [38]

Fruit and vegetables in local diets

Changing nutrition in Chile increases food related diseases [39]

The increased consumption of energy dense foods, such as meat, dairy processed foods (fat spreads, sweets and pastries) and foods rich in added sugars (sugary drinks and juices) are responsible for a rise of obesity, diabetes, heart diseases and cancer in Chile. The population has a low consumption of fish, whole grains, legumes, vegetables and fruits.

Protective effect of the Mediterranean diet [40]

The Mediterranean diet is rich in nuts, fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole-wheat bread, fish, and olive oil, with moderate amounts of red wine. The population adhering to this diet present a lower rate of cancer and cardiovascular disease. This diet is rich in antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents, such as omega-3 fatty acids, oleic acid, and phenolic compounds. Pauwels 2011 reviews studies related to the benefits of the Mediterranean diet and its mechanisms of biological activity.

Controversy of brown rice versus white rice in risk reduction of diabetes 2 [41]

Sun et al 2010 postulate that differences in processing and nutrients between brown rice and white rice may have different effects on risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Using data from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and the Nurses' Health Study I and II, the authors found that higher intake of white rice (>5 servings per week versus <1 per month) was associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, compared to high brown rice intake (>2 servings per week versus <1 per month).

According to the authors replacing 50 g/d (uncooked, equivalent to one-third serving per day) intake of white rice with brown rice may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes by 16%, whereas whole grains as a group reduced diabetes risk by 36%. The authors concluded that substituting white rice by whole grains, including brown rice, reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes. The study supports the recommendation to consume whole grains instead of refined grains.

Whole grain consumption may reduce body weight [42]

Refining process removes many bioactive contents of whole grain. These contents are linked to health improving activities, modulate appetite, nutrient availability, and energy utilization. Saltzman 2012 stresses that whole grain was found to lower BMI and reduces risk of obesity, however, clinical trials were unable to confirm this affirmation. Salzman writes that failing to confirm the positive effects of whole grain foods resulted in the fact that studies did not consider the type and amount of grain consumed as well as the nature of its consumption. These factors probably influences body weight and may be increased by inappropriate processing methods of the food industry.

Brown rice does not reduce diabetes 2 risk, says new study [43]

A new study of Zhang et al 2011 analysed the effect of brown rice and risk reduction of diabetes 2 measuring during 16 weeks BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin, and serum lipid, glucose, and insulin concentrations.

The authors report that there were no differences found between the group with white rice in their diet and the group with brown rice. Only the serum LDL cholesterol concentration decreased more in the white rice group compared to the brown rice group, but this effect was observed only among participants with diabetes. Participants with diabetes within the brown rice group experienced a greater reduction in diastolic blood pressure compared to the white rice group. The authors concluded that brown rice does not improve metabolic risk factors of diabetes 2, however, further studies must confirm this affirmation.

High sugar and saturated fats diet increases incidence of diseases in Brazil [44]

Levi-Costa and colleagues report an increasing consumption of sugar leading to excess of calories and low intake of fruits and vegetables in Brazil. A high proportion of calories from saturated fats in urban regions displace traditional foods, like rice and beans. These local dishes are being replaced by processed foods, such as cookies and soft drinks, increasing the amount of sugar and saturated fats in the Brazilian diet. These changes in dietary habits leads to obesity chronic non-communicable diseases in morbidity and mortality and with the continuous increase in the prevalence of obesity.

Relation of sugar purchases to other foods The authors stress that each calorie from sugar purchases increases the share of calories from fat by 0.3 calories and decreases the share of calories from protein by 0.7 calories.
Relation of sugar from processed foods to other foods Each calorie of sugar from processed foods increases the share from fat by 1.6 calories and the share from saturated fatty acids by 0.4 calories and decreases the share from non-sugar carbohydrates by 0.8 calories. [45]

The authors support the recommendations of the WHO and the Brazilian Ministry of Health which recommend to limit the consumption of sugar. [46]

Symbiogenics may adapt rice plants to the impact of climate change [47]

Rusty Rodriguez, a researcher at the United States Geological Survey (USGS) reports the development of rice variety with increased tolerance to cold, salt and drought. Heat stress resistance has still to be added, because rice production is known to decreases by 10 percent for every temperature increase of 1-degree centigrade during the rice-growing season.

The researchers at USGS colonized two commercial varieties of rice with the spores of fungi that exist naturally within native coastal dunegrass. Fungi which colonize the rice plants may confer stress tolerance to drought, salt and temperature, as well as increased seed yields and root systems in rice These stressors are predicted to worsen due to climate change, and adapting rice plants to such changes is crucial because rice provides nearly half the daily calories for the world’s population. These small fungi act as endophytes.

The term "endophytic" refers to a situation where one organism lives inside another. In this case, a fungus and grass form a relationship that is mutually beneficial and enhances the reproductive success of each. Another example of endophytic relationship is provided by researchers of the University of Rhode Island. They roprt that the fungal endophytes Acremonium coenophialum and A. lolii live within perennial ryegrass hosts. These endophytes are transferred from plant to plant via seed. [48]

Symbiogenics

The USGS researchers named this emerging area of research "symbiogenics" for symbiosis-altered gene expression. The DNA of the rice plant itself is not changed. Removing the fungus from dunegrass, the plants are no longer salt tolerant, indicating that no DNA change took place.

Pesticides in soils of litchi orchards

[49] Pesticides were determined in Guandond/China soils of litchi orchards after harvesting the fruit. Yao and colleagues 2010, authors of the study, found concentrations of 39.05 microg/kg(-1) for mancozeb, 7.83 microg/kg(-1) for cypermethrin and 0.19 to 1.65 microg/kg(-1) for the other five pesticides (carbendazim. metalaxyl, cyhalothrin. dimethoate and dichlorvos). Deltamethrin and dipterex were not found in all soil samples. The authors suggest that the range of pesticide residue in litchi orchards in Guangdong does not affect food safety.

Modern horticulture wants to revive traditional African fruits [50]

According to National Research Council in USA tropical fruit production in Africa is dominated by species introduced from Asia and the, such as bananas, pineapples, and papayas which displaced the traditional species that had fed Africans for thousands of years.

With renewed scientific and institutional support, however, native fruits could make a much greater contribution to nutrition and economic development, the new report says. Fruit trees and shrubs also offer long-term benefits by improving the stability of the environment.

The National Research Council report lists the benefits of 24 fruits that are considered candidates for optimisation. The most important of this list are:

Broccoli


Sulforaphane from broccoli in the prevention of different cancers [51]

Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the PTEN gene.Mutations of this gene are a step in the development of many cancers. PTEN acts as a tumor suppressor gene through the action of its phosphatase protein product. This phosphatase is involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, preventing cells from growing and dividing too rapidly. PTEN is one of the most commonly lost tumor suppressors in human cancer. During tumor development, mutations and deletions of PTEN occur that inactivate its enzymatic activity leading to increased cell proliferation and reduced cell death. Frequent genetic inactivation of PTEN occurs in glioblastoma, endometrial cancer, prostate cancer, and reduced expression is found in many other tumor types such as lung and breast cancer. [52]

Traka and colleagues 2010 assessed the diet and its relation to counteract the loss of PTEN expression to contribute to the prevention of prostate cancer or reduce the rate of cancer progression. The authors focused on the interaction between sulforaphane, PTEN expression and gene expression in pre malignant prostate tissue.

Sulforaphane is an organosulfur compound that exhibits anticancer, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial properties. It is obtained from cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli. The enzyme myrosinase transforms glucoraphanin, a glucosinolate, into sulforaphane upon damage to the plant (such as from chewing) [53]

Traka and colleagues suggest that sulforaphane suppresses transcriptional changes induced by PTEN deletion and induces additional changes in gene expression associated with cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death Such changes can be induced in humans with a broccoli-rich diet. The authors point to the complex interaction between diet, genotype and gene expression, and the importance of small bioactive components of a varied diet.

Sulforaphane and iberin of broccoli are associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer [54]

Chambers and colleagues 2009 report that isothiocyanates derived from glucosinolates that accumulate in broccoli are dietary compounds that have health effects. Sulforaphane derives from heading broccoli (calabrese) and iberin from sprouting broccoli, and both increase the expression of tumor suppressor gene PLAGL1 and suppressed expression of the tumor promoting genes IFITM1, CSPG2, and VIM in epithelial cells. The authors stress that sulforaphane and iberin interfere with cancer prevention genes, and recommend further studies on iberin.

Broccoli consumption interferes in its signalling pathway of inflammation and cancer of prostate [55]

Traka and colleagues 2008 stress that eating more than one portion of cruciferous vegetables per week reduces the risk of prostate cancer. The authors report that a six month broccoli-rich diet induced a significant increase of the gene expression of glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) associated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFbeta1) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signalling pathways. No such changes were found in a pea-rich diet.

The authors explain further that sulforaphane from broccoli interacts with TGFbeta1, EGF and insulin peptides to form thioureas, and enhances TGFbeta1/Smad-mediated transcription reducing inflammation and cancer risk of prostate.

Sulforaphane derived from broccoli, may exhibit chemopreventive properties by inducing cell cycle arrest via induction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21(waf1/cip1)). In 2009, Traka and colleagues explained the role of the transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) in mediating the induction of p21(waf1/cip1) and cellular differentiation by sulforaphane and iberin from broccoli. These results suggest that induction of p21(waf1/cip1) by SF or IB may be partly mediated by KLF4 in some colon cancer cells and tissues. [56]

Healt benefits of a diet rich in broccoli sprouts are higher than consuming supplements [57]

Cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage and kale contain glucosinolates. These phytochemicals reduce the risk of prostate, breast, lung and colorectal cancer. Clarke et al. 2011 report that the enzyme myrosinase, present in these vegetables, is needed to break down glucosinolates in sulforaphane and erucin. Both metabolites are found in urine in concentrations eight times higher in people eating broccoli sprouts, compared to persons which receive in their diet glucosinolates as supplement instead of broccoli sprouts. The authors explain that supplements lack the myrosinase enzyme present in whole foods. It is being recommended not to cook vegetables too long, particularly broccoli sprouts. It should retain firmness to avoid destruction of natural enzymes and vitamins of the food.

The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) 2009

Alcohol reduces Coronary Heart Disease [58]

Spain, China, Switzerland, and France have the lowest CHD mortality rates in the world. Spain is the world's third largest wine producer and ninth largest beer producer, and is in sixth position in the world ranking of alcohol consumption. Several studies postulate that moderate alcohol intake reduces Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) risk. Some studies highlight the benefits of bioflavonoids of red vine. A new study of Larraitz Arriola and colleagues, analysing data of the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) found that moderate, high and very high consumption was associated with a more than 30% reduce risk of CHD in men aged 29-69 years, compared with non-drinkers, however, no significant association could be demonstrated among women.

Other scientists like William S. Harris disagree saying that the assertion that alcohol lowers heart disease misstates the findings being an epidemiological study, not an interventional study. [59]

No cancer risk of pancreas and prostate linked to alcohol [60]

Rohrmann and colleagues 2009 using EPIC data suggest no association of alcohol consumption with pancreatic cancer risk [60]. In a study of 2008 the same authors reported no increase risk of prostate cancer in this cohort of European men, related to alcohol consume. [61]

Vegetables and fruits reduce the risk of lung cancer, this is valid also for smokers [62]

An inverse associations between the consumption of vegetables and fruits and risk of lung cancer were reported by Büchner and colleagues 2009 which also stress that consumption of vegetables and fruits may reduce lung cancer risk, in particular the risk of squamous cell carcinomas in current smokers.

The Mediterranean diet reduces risk of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) according EPIC data [63]

Buckland and colleagues 2009 examined the relation between Mediterranean diet adherence and risk of incident CHD events in the 5 Spanish centres of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. The authors report that the Mediterranean reduces CHD risk and exerts a role in primary prevention of CHD in healthy populations.

Mediterranean diet reduces risk of gastric cancer [64]

The Mediterranean diet is believed to protect against cancer. Buckland and colleagues 2010 explored the association between a relative Mediterranean diet and incident gastric adenocarcinoma within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study within a mean follow-up of 8.9 years.

No association between moderate alcohol intake and risk of gastric cancer was found in this study. This legitimates the use of moderate consumption of red wine, a characteristic element of the Mediterranean diet.

The authors conclude that a relative Mediterranean diet is associated with a significant reduction of risk of gastric adenocarcinoma.

High intake of fruit and vegetables does not significantly reduce cancer risk, but reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease [65]

Boffetta and colleagues,assessing data of European EPIC study (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) say found that eating five portions of fruit and vegetables may not significantly reduce the risk of developing cancer. The results from many studies are inconsistent and reduction of cancer risk was low, being 3% for fruit and vegetable combined, 1% reduction for fruit alone, and 2% reduction for vegetables alone.

Other researchers point to the benefits of high fruit and vegetable intake [66]

Dr. Walter C. Willett, in an editorial 2010 says that even with the findings of EPIC study report on low anti-cancer effect of fruit and vegetable consumption, their benefit to reduce risks of cardiovascular disease, and a small benefit for cancer make the effort worthwhile. Research should focus more sharply on specific fruits and vegetables and their constituents and on earlier periods of life. For prevention of cancer, the primary focus at present should be heightened efforts to reduce smoking and obesity because obesity in the United States has become similar in magnitude to smoking as an avoidable cause.

Dr Rachel Thompson, Science Programme Manager for World Cancer Research Fund, said that the 2.5 per cent of prevented cancers found by the EPIC stand for impressing 7,000 cases a year alone in UK. The five-a-day fruit and vegetables program also helps to reduce weight. Thompson also reminds that quit smoking, keeping a healthy weight, cutting down on alcohol, eating a healthy balanced diet, being physically active and staying safe in the sun are part of a good strategy to reduce cancer risk. [67]

The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study and gastric cancer [68]

Studying the protection of fruits and vegetables against oesophagus and gastric cancer Carlos A. González and colleagues found in the EPIC study that total vegetable and onion and garlic intake has a protective role in the intestinal type of gastric cancer and the adenocarcinoma of oesophagus.

Citrus fruit consumption may have a role in the protection against cardia gastric cancer and the adenocarcinoma of oesophagus, but no evidence of association between fresh fruit intake and gastric cancer risk was found.

Dietary recommendations to increase vegetable consumption are being supported by this study because this may reduce the risk of intestinal type of gastric cancer.

Nutrition and prostata cancer prevention [69]

Schmidt and colleagues 2011 point out that heredity, ethnic origin, and increasing age are risk factors of prostate cancer. Environmental factors also play an important role in the development of the disease. Men with the same genetic background, but living in different environments diseased in association with the place where they lived.

Nutritional factors Total energy intake (as reflected by body mass index), dietary fat, cooked meat, micronutrients and vitamins (carotenoids, retinoids, vitamins C, D and E), fruit and vegetable intake, minerals (calcium, selenium), and phytoestrogens (isoflavonoids, flavonoids, lignans) were found to reduce the risk of prostate cancer.
However, selenium and vitamin E were found to be of no benefit to cancer prevention by "The selenium and vitamin E cancer prevention trial" (SELECT). Therefore the trial was discontinued Overall the authors recommend lifestyle changes to reduce the risk of prostate cancer.


Kiwi

It is widely used as food because of its high content of vitamin C and its taste.
Allergy is often cited in relation with kiwi. It is supposed that instable allergens are of importance. As possible allergen thio-proteinase actinidin 23,5 kD; pl 3,1 is cited. It is similar to bromelain in pineapple and papain in Papaya.

Pastorello et al. (1996) has found as major allergen at 30kD the protein 22,24 (Actinidin) 28, 32, 38 and 41 kD.
Any attempt to modify the genetic code of kiwi should try to suppress these fractions as possible allergens.

Papaya anti cancer and anti allergic effects in vitro [70]

Papaya (Carica papaya Linn.) is known by its papain from fruit and leaves. Teas from leaves of the papaya plant are also used in traditional medicine in case of various types of cancer. Recently Dang and colleagues 2010 report that aqueous-extracted Carica papaya leaf fraction inhibited the growth of various tumour cell lines and enhanced the expression of CCL2, CCL7, CCL8 and SERPINB2 genes. These genes are index markers of the immunomodulatory effect of the extract. The authors identified fraction with molecular weight less than 1000 as the active part to inhibits tumor cell growth and stimulates anti-tumor effects. Th1-type cytokine production is activated. The authors suggest that Carica papaya leaf extract can may be useful in treatment and prevention of cancer, various allergic disorders, and may also serve as immunoadjuvant for vaccine therapy. No toxic effects on normal cells were found.

Antioxidants of Mallotus nanus used in traditional medicine in Vietnam and China [71]

Van Kiem and colleagues 2010 report methanolic extract of the leaves of Mallotus nanus to contain two mallonanosides, which are 2-C-beta-D-glucopyranosyl benzoic acid derivatives. Other isolated flavonoids were kaempferin, juglanin, quercitrin, myricitrin, and rhoifolin.

Mallotus species are used in traditional medicine in Vietnam and China. Some also show interesting activities, such as antioxidant and cytotoxic ones. Tistaert and colleagues 2009 used chromatographic fingerprints to reveal the peaks potentially responsible for the antioxidant activity of several Mallotus species. [72]


Antioxidant Capacities Tunisian Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Fruits [73]

Elfalleh et al 2011 assessed the Antioxidant Capacities Tunisian Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Fruits. The tocopherol (alfa-tocopherol, gama-tocopherol, and delta-tocopherol) contents were found by the author, respectively, 165.77, 107.38, and 27.29 mg/100 g from dry seed.

The phenolic compounds were identified as 2 hydroxybenzoic acids (gallic and ellagic acids) and 2 hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic and rho-coumaric acids). The highest antioxidants values were found in peels, and less in juice and seed oil. The antioxidant activity of pomegranate extracts correlated with their phenolic compound content, being highest in peels. The antioxidant activity of the seed oil is mainly related to the content of tocopherols. The authors suggest that pomegranate may become a valuable antioxidant for dietary food. [74]

Pomegranate seed oil: According to Elfalleh, Ying and colleagues 2011 Tunesia and China pomegranates had a total lipids content of 16% on a dry weight basis, of which 88% were unsaturated. The authors found linolenic acid (44.51-86.14%), linoleic acid (3.57-13.92%), oleic acid (3.03-12.88%), palmitic acid (3.13-11.82%), stearic acid (1.68-15.64%), gadoleic acid (0.50-4.91%), lignoceric acid ( < 2.53%), arachidic acid ( < 1.70%) and myristic acid ( < 0.85%). The fatty acids content varied between Chinese and Tunisian pomegranate depending on the sampling location. [75]

Lansky and Newman 2007 reviewed the medicinal and nutritional role of pomegranate (Punica granatum). The authors found that juice and peels possess potent antioxidant properties, while juice, peel and oil are all weakly estrogenic and are useful to treat menopausal symptoms and sequellae. Juice, peel and oil have anticancer activities, including interference with tumor cell proliferation, cell cycle, invasion and angiogenesis. The authors stress that all Punica granatum components may be use for treatment and prevention of diseases based on chronic inflammation. [76]

Juniperus phoenicea berries are high in polyphenols and flavonoids say researchers [77]

Nasri et al 2011 report a high content of gallic acid (1764 ± 174.3 mg per 100 g DW) and rutin (890 ± 47.6 mg per 100 g DW) in Juniperus phoenicea berries. High free radical scavenging activities were also found by the authors. The authors stress that Juniperus phoenicea may be used as supplements or as an ingredient in pharmacy.

Spices in fatty meals may reduce risk of heart diseases [78]

Spices were found to be potent antioxidant in vitro. Skulas-Ray et al. 2011 examined the postprandial activity of spices on human markers of plasma antioxidant status and metabolism.

A meal of chicken curry with 5060-kJ (1200 kcal) was seasoned with two table spoons (14 g) of a blend of rosemary, oregano, cinnamon, turmeric, black pepper, cloves, garlic powder and paprika, Blood from the participants were taken every 30 minutes for 3.5 hours. Antioxidant activity in the blood was increased by 13 percent and insulin response decreased by about 21 percent, blood triglycerides decreased by 30 percent, and the ferric reducing antioxidant power increased 2-fold, compared with the unseasoned meal group. This was found to be equivalent to 5 ounces of red wine or 1.4 ounces of dark chocolate. Glucose, total thiols, lipophilic ORAC, or total ORAC remained unaltered.

The authors concluded that spices may normalize postprandial insulin and TG and improve antioxidant defences.

White fruits (apple and pears) protect against stroke, but not coloured foods [79]

Bioactive compounds, such as carotenoids, anthocyanidins, and flavonoids are known to be associated with health benefits. These compounds bring colours to fruits and vegetables. The study of Oude Griep et al. 2011 looked at which fruit and vegetable colour groups may reduce the risk of stroke assessing the consumption of fruit and vegetable colour groups during a 10-year stroke incidence study.

The authors found that coloured fruits and vegetables were not related to stroke. The coloured groups under the study were green (cabbages, lettuces), orange/yellow (citrus fruits), and red/purple (red vegetables) fruits and vegetables. Higher intake of white-fleshed fruits and vegetables (apple and pears) were inversely associated with incident stroke, and 25-g/day increase in white fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with a 9% lower risk of stroke. An average apple weighs 120 g. This suggests that high intake of apples and pears may reduce stroke incidence, The authors, however, call for more study to confirm the findings.

Don't turn your back to coloured fruits and vegetable, they protect against cancer and other diseases. Have in mind to eat more fruits and vegetables as a whole.

Diet high in vegetables and fruits reduces the risk of heart diseases interfering with the Chromosome 9p21 SNPsregion, which is associated with such diseases [80]

Do et al. 2011 report that diet high in raw vegetables and fruits reduce the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The chromosome 9p21 SNPs was found to be related to these heart diseases and diet may reduce the effect of this chromosome. The study used data of the INTERHEART study and the FINRISK. Participants were genotyped for four 9p21 SNPs.

All four genes were associated with heart diseases. The combination of two copies of the risk allele and the least prudent diet correlated with a two-fold and 1.66-fold increase in the risk of MI and CVD respectively. This provides more evidences of the benefits of diets high in raw vegetables and fruits.

Antioxidant capacity of tomato and tomato-based products

Tomato seed oil has high antioxidant capacity [81]

Mueller et al. 2012 report that tomato seed oil has antioxidant capacities, such as inhibition of intracellular ROS production, which are higher than that of purified lycopene. The authors explain that the high antioxidant capacity of tomato seed oil is based on the aggregate of antioxidants which includes (5Z)-, (9Z)-, (13Z)-, (15Z)-lycopene isomers, beta-carotene, lutein and tocopheroles.
The authors also highlight that tomato seed oil decreases the phosphorylation of the MAPK ERK1/2, JNK, p-38; reduces the activation of the redox-sensitive NF-kB, and the expression of the heat shock proteins 70 and 90.


Lycopene of tomato sauce-based pasta dishes shows promising results in prostata cancer study [82]

In this study patients with prostate adenocarcinoma consumed tomato sauce for 3 weeks (30 mg of lycopene/day). Bowen et al. 2002 report a significant uptake of lycopene into prostate tissue and a reduction in DNA damage in both leukocyte (8OHdG) and prostate tissue. Also reduced was serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). Further studies must clear if these findings are beneficial in controlling the disease. The authors refer to the reduction of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) as promising.

Carotenoid compositions of tomatoes and their protecting activity on cardiac cells [83]

Li et al. 2013 studied the carotenoid compositions, antioxidant activities and the potential cardio-protective role of 13 tomato different cultivars. Red tomatoes had the highest total carotenoid contents and antioxidant activities, followed by purple, orange, pink and yellow ones. The lipophilic extracts prevent cell death of cardiac reducing the caspase-3 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 activities in a H9c2 cell model under H2O2 stress. Lycopene presented the highest activity. The authors write that these data may be used in developing new tomato cultivars.

Ultrasound reduces bioavailability of lycopene in tomato pulp [84]

Ultrasound applied to tomato pulp at a frequency and amplitude of 24kHz and 100µm increased the gel-like rheologic properties of the pulp but reduced the tomato cell integrity and the degree of pectin esterification. Anese et al. 2013, authors of the study, explain that ultrasound causes the formation of a network of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions among the de-esterified pectin molecules, this stronger network reduces the bioaccessibility of lycopene in vitro, being less availiable to digestion.


In vitro study of the effects of curcumin and lycopene upon oral squamous cell carcinoma cells [85]

An in vitro study was carried out to evaluate the effect of curcumin, lycopene, and irradiation upon oral squamous cell carcinoma cells (PE/CA-PJ15 cell line). Curcumin and lycopene increase cytotoxic activity in the PE/CA-PJ15 cell line and reduce cell migration capacity. The combination of curcumin or lycopene with irradiation exerts a synergistic effect. Camacho-Alonso et al. 2012 found best results with 5.50 µM curcumin and 6.75 µM lycopene and 5 Gy of irradiation.

For best antioxidant potential the correct genotype suited to the geographical region should be chosen [86]

Chandra et al. 2012 found that cultivars developed for high altitude, such as Sindhu and Shalimar presented highest contents of lycopene, anthocyanin and free radical quenching ability. Plain region cultivars, however, have higher contents of total phenolics, ascorbic acid and titratable acidity. The authors concluded that the right genotype should be planted which is best for the geographical conditions.

Lycopene of processed tomato products improves conditions of patients with heart failure independent of sodium intake [87]

Processed tomato products are a major source of lycopene, although they are also high in sodium. Biddle et al. 2012 found in a study of 212 patients which suffered heart failure, that a diet containing 2471 µg/day of lycopene and a mean sodium intake of 3 g/day was associated with longer cardiac event-free survival compared with lower lycopene intake, even with low sodium intake of less than 3 g/day. The authors concluded that increased lycopene intake improves cardiac event-free survival in patients with heart failure. Sodium intake independent of sodium intake.

Tomato and tomato products decrease oxidative stress biomarkers [88]

Martinez et al report that consuming 160 g/day tomato sauce with high lycopene content decreased levels of oxidised LDL cholesterol by 9%. A commercial tomato sauce did not show such improvement.

Serum concentration of lycopene, blood pressure, general biochemical variables including total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, triglycerides insulin and glucose concentrations did not varied between the consumption of high lycopene sauce and the commercial sauce.

The authors concluded that lycopene in combination with other bioactive compounds in products like tomato sauce rich in lycopene, has a role in the prevention of oxidative stress related diseases, such as atherosclerosis and coronary heart diseases.


Lycopene dietary effects

The carotenoid lycopene has been reported to protect against cancer associated with immunomodulation. Huand et al. 2013 investigated the immunomodulatory effect angiogenesis of lycopene. Lycopene up-regulated interleukin (IL)-12 by 163% and interferon (IFN)-$\gamma$ by 531% in vitro at a concentration of 10 µmol/L. The authors concluded that lycopene has a potent anti-angiogenic effect associated with its up-regulation of IL-12 and IFN-$\gamma$. [89]

An anti-angiogenic effect inhibits the growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). Some angiogenesis inhibitors are used by the body as a normal blood vessels control to reduce cancer risk. Some of angiogenesis inhibitors, such as lycopene come from foods.

Plant lycopene exhibits antioxidant activity in transient cerebral ischemia/reperfusion [90]

Lycopene was found by Fujita et al. 2013 to delay neuronal death in hippocampal regions in gerbils attenuating ischemia-related neuronal damage by controlling apoptosis at the gene level. Food containing 5 mg/100 g was found to increase hippocampal superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity after ischemia. The authors concluded that orally administered lycopene, accumulates in the body and protects against ischemia brain injury by increasing the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and inhibiting apoptosis.


Increased bioavailability of synthetic form of lycopene [91]

Lycopene of tomatoes is a better antioxidant thant other antioxidants. Sarkar et al. 2012 found that supplementation of synthetic lycopene was even more efficient to reduce oxidative stress biomarkers SOD, GPX, GR, GSH, Catalase, vitamin C and E, except MDA, compared to natural lycopene. Bioavailiabilty of synthetic lycopene was found to be more bioavailable turning it more effective against oxidative stress.

Tomato product supplementation, containing antioxidant carotenoids and lycopene, decreases oxidative stress. Devaraj et al 2008 report that purified lycopene presented a good bioavailability. It decreased DNA oxidative damage and urinary 8-OHdG at 30 mg lycopene/day. [92]

Lycopene intake is too low in western Europe [93]

Vandevijvere et al. 2013 criticises the low level of lycopene in diets of Belgiuans and European neighbours. The authors found an intake of 4,6 mg/day for men and 3,6 mg/day of lycopene for women. This was below the acceptable daily intake, according to the authors. Tomato and tomato products were considered to be the main dietary contributor of lycopene in this region.

Degradation of anthocyanins in frozen raspberries and in freeze-dried raspberries [94]

Syamaladevi et al. 2011 reports fluctuation of anthocyanin degradation in frozen raspberries stored at temperatures between -80° and -20°. The total anthocyanin degradation in freeze-dried raspberries ranged from 27% to 32% and 78% to 89% at a(w) values of 0.05 to 0.07 and 0.11 to 0.43, respectively, at room temperature of 23 ° for more than a year. Anthocyanins were completely degraded in freeze-dried raspberries stored at a(w) values of 0.53 and higher after 1 year. Glassy state reduced degradation compared to degradation in rubbery state in freeze-dried raspberries during storage.

Roos 2010 write that the success of freeze drying, spray drying, and extrusion and the stability of dehydrated foods against flow, collapse, and crystallization is based on the control of the glassy state during the dehydration process and storage. Critical values for water activity and water content express the level of water plasticization leading to glass transition in food storage. [95]

According to Syamaladevi et al. 2012 total anthocyanins, total phenolics and total antioxidant activity in canned blueberry solids decreased by up to 86, 69 and 52% respectively. In canned blueberry syrup, total anthocyanins and total antioxidant activity decreased by up to 68 and 15% respectively, while total phenolic content increased by up to 117%. Blanching before thermal processing helped to preserve the phytochemicals during storage of blueberries. The production system of conventional versus organic did not influence antioxidants stability in canned blueberry products. [96]

Effect of thermal treatment on anthocyanin and phenolic contents of berries [97]

According to Sablani et al. 2010 the total anthocyanins decreased by up to 44%, while phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of berries increased by up to 50 and 53% respectively in canned red raspberries and blueberries. The level of changes in phytochemicals during berry puree/juice processing was influenced by blanching and type of berries. Blanching prior to processing improved the retention of phytochemicals in blueberries. Berries of normal agricultural origin did not varied from organic produced berries in relation to antocyanin and phenolic contents.

Food and hypertension

Unpeeled purple tomatoes reduce blood pressure [98]

Antioxidant effects of a diet consisting of purple potatoes microwaved with skins were compared to a diet of refined starch as cooked biscuits by Vinson et al. 2012. The purple potato diet caused an increase in plasma and urine antioxidant capacity. People receiving refined potato starch diet had a decreased antioxidant status.

Fasting plasma glucose, lipids and body weight remained unchanged by the potato diet. Diastolic blood pressure decreased by 4.3%, and systolic blood pressure decreased by 3.5%. The authors believe that purple potatoes are an effective hypotensive agent and lower the risk of heart disease and stroke in hypertensive subjects, due to their content of polyphenols, anthocyanins, and chlorogenic acids (CGA), which are found at higher concentration in purple than white potatoes, and keeping skins protect the antioxidants of potatoes during cooking.


Solanine and glycoalkaloids in potato [99]

In potato tubers, 30-80% of the solanine develops in and close to the skin. Greening of potatoes suggests solanine build-up, although each process can occur without the other. A bitter taste in a potato is another, potentially more reliable indicator of toxicity. The symptoms of solanine poisoning are mainly vomiting and diarrhea, and the condition may be misdiagnosed as gastroenteritis.

Deep frying potatoes at 170° is known to effectively lower glycoalkaloid levels (because they move into the frying fat), whereas microwaving is only somewhat effective, freeze drying or dehydration has little effect, and boiling has no effect.

Upper limit for glycoalkaloid content [100]

In potatoes, the commonly found glycoalkaloids are a-solanine and a-chaconine forming as high as 95% of total glycoalkaloids. The highest concentrations of total glycoalkaloids are found in the peel and in the tissue layer just below it. The levels of total glycoalkaloids in consumer varieties of potatoes range from 20-150 ppm. The potato alkaloids inhibiting cholinesterase leading to the accumulation of acetylcholine that is responsible for conducting nerve impulses, and 2 mg of glycoalkaloid/kg body weight produced classic symptoms of poisoning.

For food safety purposes, an upper limit for glycoalkaloid content of 20 mg/100 g of potato is generally accepted. Commonly appreciated are varieties that contain 20 to 130 mg glycoalkaloids/kg fresh weight. Potatoes with solanine levels greater than 140 mg/kg have a bitter taste.

Toxic glycoalkaloids in Pakistani potatoes [101]

The toxic glycoalkaloids of potato tuber are poisonous to humans and may cause livestock deaths. Aziz et al. 2012 evaluated α-chaconine, α-solanine, and total glycoalkaloids (TGAs) contents in the peel and flesh portions in selected Pakistani potato cultivars. These data may be important for the evaluation of cultivars and safety assessment in potato processing industry.

The α-solanine content varies 46 to 2743 in peel and from 4 to 2467 mg/100 g of dry weight in flesh. The α-chaconine content varied from 4 to 6818 in potato peel and from 4 to 475 mg/100 g of dry weight in flesh portion. The TGA concentration varied from 177 to 5450 in peel and from 3 to 15 mg/100 g of dry weight in flesh portion of all the potato cultivars tested.

All the potato cultivars contained lower concentration of TGA than the limits recommended as safe, except 2 cultivars, that is FD8-3 (2539.18 ± 89.77 mg/100 g of DW) and Cardinal (506.16 ± 17.90 mg/kg).

The dietary intake assessment of potato cultivars revealed that Cardinal, FD 35-36, FD 8-3, and FD 3-9 contained higher amount of TGA in whole potato, although FD 8-3 only possessed higher content of TGA (154.93 ± 7.75) in its flesh portion rendering it unfit for human consumption.


Glycoalkaloid in peel and core of potato cultivars and potato food products [102]

Simoi et al 2007 assessed the content of potato glycoalkaloid (PGA) in 27 cultivars of raw potatoes and 31 potatoes in commercial foods. The cultivars "May queen" and "Sherry" showed high contents of PGA of 180 mg/kg and 320 mg/kg, respectively, and "Inca red" showed the lowest content of 21 mg/kg. Small potatoes presented higher contents of PGA and commercial potato foods with peel ranged from 48 to 350 mg/kg. The complete data set is available at http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/shokueishi/48/3/77/_pdf.

Potatoes produce secondary metabolites, such as glycoalkaloids, calystegine alkaloids, protease inhibitors, lectins, phenolic compounds, and chlorophyl. Glycoalkaloids of potatoes are involved in host-plant resistance and to have a variety of adverse as well as beneficial effects in animals and humans with possible dietary consequences if present in fresh and processed potatoes. [103]

Influence of production process of potato flakes and byproducts [104]

Mäder, Rawel and Kroh 209 assessed the influence of a commercial production process for dehydrated potato flakes on the content of free phenolic compounds, total phenolics, and glycoalkaloids in potatoes byproducts, such as potato peel (steam peeling), mashed potato residues, and side streams (blanching and cooking waters), have also been investigated.

Peeling and leaching reduces significantly the content of undesired compounds. The processing temperature is less important. The authors found that 43% of the initial phenolic acids and 10% of the glycoalkaloids remain after processing. Steam peeling has a higher influence on glycoalkaloid losses compared to that on phenolics. Peeling byprodukt had the highest amounts of phenolic compounds and glycoalkaloids. Processing reduces chlorogenic acid, however, isomeration increases the concentration of neochlorogenic acid.

Weight loss to reduce blood pressure [105]

Siebenhofer et al 2011 analysed the studies which focused on weight reduction and cardiovascular events associated with hypertension. Siebenhover and colleagues found that weight loss diets reduced body weight and blood pressure in primary hypertension patients, however there are uncertainties regarding the magnitude of this reduction, because only a reduced number of studies could qualify for their review. It remains unknown whether weight loss reduces mortality and morbidity.

Mulrow et al. 2008 evaluated the effect of weight-reducing diets in overweight hypertensive persons. They found that a modest weight loss in the range of 3-9% of body weight may be associated with modest blood pressure decreases of roughly 3 mm Hg systolic and diastolic and may reduce dosage requirements of antihypertensive medications. [106]

Blood metabolism altered by dietary carbohydrates modification patients with metabolic syndrome [107]

To elucidate how whole-grain cereals and diets with a low glycemic index may protect against the development of type 2 diabetes and heart disease, Lankinen et al 2010 looked at subjects with metabolic syndrome submitted to either to a diet high in oat and wheat bread and potato (OWP) or rye bread and pasta (RP) diet.

In the OWP group multiple proinflammatory lysophosphatidylcholines increased, mRNA expression of stress reactions- and adipose tissue differentiation-related genes were up-regulated in adipose tissue.
In the RP group docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6n-3) increased and isoleucine decreased, and pathways related to stress reactions and insulin signaling and energy metabolism were down-regulated.

The authors stress that dietary carbohydrate modification alters the serum metabolic profile contributing to proinflammatory processes contributing to diabetes and heart diseases.

Relation of unhealthy diet with all-cause mortality and physical activity [108]

Héroux 2010 assessed the relation between dietary patterns with all-cause mortality, while controlling for the potentially confounding effects of fitness. Using data of the prospective cohort study consisting of 13 621 men and women from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS) one primary dietary pattern emerged and was labelled the Unhealthy Eating Index.

The Unhealthy Eating Index

In this study unhealthy eating food, associated with modest to strong risk factor for chronic disease and mortality risk, were grouped as follows:
Red meat: Cooked meat from beef, pork, veal, lamb and game.
Added fat: Added butter, margarine, oils and dressings.
White potato products: White potatoes including such things as french fries and mashed potatoes.
None-whole grains: All grain products that are enriched, unenriched, or fortified (e.g. white bread, white pasta, cereals).
Processed meat: Frankfurters, sausages and luncheon meats.
Non-citrus fruits: All fruit except for citrus (lemon, lime, orange, grapefruit).

Cardiorespiratory fitness influencing factors

Participants were divided into three categories: (i) inactive (no activity); (ii) moderately active (sporting or leisure-time physical activity other than walking or jogging; or walk or jog up to 16km/week); and (iii) highly active (walk or jog ≥16km/week).

Study conclusion: A high Unhealthy Eating Index was associated with all-cause mortality risk, characterized by elevated consumption of processed and red meat, white potato products, non-whole grains, added fat and reduced consumption of non-citrus fruits. The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was reduced by 13.5 and 55.0% after controlling for self-reported physical activity and fitness, respectively. Thus, the association between diet and overall mortality was, in large part, confounded by fitness.


Insufficient evidence to recommend sweet potato for type 2 diabetes mellitu[109]

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is also used in traditional medicine practices for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ooi and Loke reviewed studies related with sweet potato and concluded that there is insufficient evidence to recommend sweet potato for type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Iron and protein biofortification of cassava [110]

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a staple food for large African regions, but it has the lowest protein:energy ratio and cassava diet furnishes less than 30% of proteins and less than 10-20% of the required amounts of iron, zinc, vitamin A and vitamin E.

According to Leyva-Guerrero et al 2012 the BioCassava Plus program tries to develop the cassava germplasm to increase the nutrient levels, mainly protein and iron. The authors discovered that cyanogens are related with the cassava nitrogen metabolism. Increasing protein levels in cassava reduces cyanogen levels, and rising iron uptake impacts the iron homeostasis in different tissues.

The BioCassava plu program biofortification [111]

The BioCassava Plus (BC+) program tries to improve the health of Africans through the development of GM cassava with increased nutrient (zinc, iron, protein, and vitamin A) levels, increased shelf life, reductions in toxic cyanogenic glycosides to safe levels, and resistance to viral disease. Biofortificated GM cassava was tested with good results in field trials in Puerto Rico and Nigeria, report Sayre et al 2011.

Hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) increase protein and reduce toxicity of cassava roots [112]

Narayanan points out that cassava roots contains toxic levels of cyanogenic glucosides such as linamarin which is stored in the vacuole. Linamarin is transformed by the enzyme linamarase in acetone cyanohydrin which decomposes to acetone and free cyanide by hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) at pH >5.0 or temperatures >35°, to acetone and free cyanide by hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL). The low HNL activity and accumulation of acetone in cassava roots may lead to toxicity of poorly processed roots. The authors suggest that a patatin promoter could induce overexpression of HNL increasing cyanogenic protein production and reducingthe toxicity of the Cassava roots. Initial linamarin levels were reduced by 80% in transgenic cassava roots, compared with wild cassava.

Biofortification of cassava acts as protein sink [113]

GM cassava was found by Abhary et al. 2011 to produce 12,5% (dry weight) of storage protein zeolin under the control of the patatin promoter. Levels of cyanogenic compounds were reduced by up to 55% in transgenic plants, as compared to conventional plants.


Oyster leaf aroma secret unveiled [114]

Oyster leaf (Mertensia maritima), also referred to as vegetarian oyster. The leaves have an amazing oyster-like, marine aroma. Delort et al. 2012 identified 109 compounds which give the plant its remarkable taste. The oyster-like taste is caused by four compounds: (Z)-3-nonenal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-ol, (Z,Z)-3,6-nonadienal, and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one. Oyster leaves can be added to fish dishes.

Triterpenoid compounds in fruits and plant in Bilberry and Lingonberry

Bilberry:Triterpenoid compounds found in fruits and leaves and in fruit and leaf cuticular waxes of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) from Finland and Poland were found by Szakiel et al. 2012 to consist mainly of α- and β -amyrin, α- and β -amyrenone, campesterol, cholesterol, citrostadienol (in berries), cycloartanol, erythrodiol, lupeol, 24-methylenecycloartanol, sitosterol, sitostanol, stigmasterol, stigmasta-3,5-dien-7-one, uvaol, oleanolic and ursolic aldehydes, and oleanolic, ursolic, 2α-hydroxyoleanolic, and 2α-hydroxyursolic acids. Friedelin and D:A-friedooleanan-3β -ol were found only in Finnish plants, whereas D:C-friedours-7-en-3β -ol and taraxasterol were found only in Polish plants. [115]

Lingonberry:The triterpenoid profile of fruits and leaves of lingonberry ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) from Finland and Poland, according to Szakiel et al. containes α-amyrin, β -amyrin, betulin, campesterol, cycloartanol, erythrodiol, fern-7-en-3β -ol, friedelin, lupeol, sitosterol, stigmasterol, stigmasta-3,5-dien-7-one, swert-9(11)-en-3β -ol, taraxasterol, urs-12-en-29-al, uvaol, oleanolic acid, and ursolic acid as a principal triterpene in lingonberry fruit. Fermenol was the major triterpenol in leaves of Finnish lingonberry and taraxasterol in Polnish plants. [116]

Lätti et al. 2011 investigated the content of phenolic compounds in berries and flowers of Vaccinium intermedium Ruthe, which is a rare natural hybrid between bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.). Bilberry produces anthocyanins and cyanidin, while lingonberry contains only cyanidin glycosides. Hybrid berries analysed by Lätti and colleagues, contained all bilberry anthocyanins with pronounced cyanidin content and present advantages compared to the natural breedings. [117]

Müller, Schantz and Richling 2012 assessed the anthocyanin content of commercially available bilberry juices and fresh fruits available in Germany. They report that Delphinidin-3-O-glucopyranoside, delphinidin-3-O-galactopyranoside, and cyanidin-3-O-arabinopyranoside were the major anthocyanins found in juices, nectar, and fresh bilberries. Fresh blueberries had higher concentrations of malvidin-3-O-arabinopyranoside and petunidin-3-O-galactopyranoside. Other studies had been based on cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, which is not the main anthocyanin content of these fruits. Müller and colleagues used the anthocyanin references found which they found in 2012. The new quantification indicates values which are 53% and 64% higher in fresh bilberries and blueberries, respectively, compared to the older data. Bilberry Juices contain 3,8 times higher anthocyanin concentrations than those of blueberries. The content of anthocyanins of fresh fruits of bilberries was 2,3 times higher than that of blueberries. [118]

Triterpenoids of heather flowers [119]

The content of triterpenoids of waxes of heather flowers is 20% by mass and that of leaves is 65%. Heather leaves are a good source of triterpenoids, with predominance of ursolic acid in cutucular wax and friedelin predominated in flowers and uvaol in leaves.

Antitumor effect of triterpenoids [120]

Triterpenoids such as ursolic and oleanolic acid, betulinic acid, celastrol, pristimerin, lupeol, and avicins possess antitumor and anti-inflammatory properties. Synthetic triterpenoid derivatives were synthesized to boost antitumor effects. being under evaluation studies. Triterpenoids are known to block nuclear factor-kappaB activation, and induce apoptosis, stresses Petronelli et al. 2009.

Betulinic acid is the most promissing antitumor compound of the triterpenoids. It is active against a variety of cancer cells in vitro and is relatively nontoxic for healthy cells. According to Mullauer et al. 2010 it induces Bax/Bak-independent cytochrome-c release in mitochondria. [121]

Oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and betulinic acid are triterpenoids with antifungal, antibacterial, anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and/or antitumor activities. Fukushima et al. 2011 found a strong correlation between CYP716A12 and β -amyrin synthase (bAS),which produces β -amyrin the basis for saponins. CYP716A12 also cooperates to modifie β -amyrin to oleanolic acid, and forms ursolic and betulinic acid. The authors found that CYP716A15 and CYP716A17, which are homologs of CYP716A12, produce triterpenoid in grapes. The data may become useful for the industrial synthesis of these triterpenoids. [122]

Glycyrrhizin, the triterpenoid saponin of licorice [123]

Glycyrrhizin, a triterpenoid saponin derived from the underground parts of Glycyrrhiza plants (licorice), is used in some countries as a natural sweetener. Seki et al 2011 explain the biosynthesis of glycyrrhizin involving the participation of a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) gene encoding β -amyrin 11-oxidase (CYP88D6) as the initial P450 gene in glycyrrhizin biosynthesis, followed by a second relevant P450 (CYP72A154) which promotes the C-30 oxidation in the glycyrrhizin pathway. Furthermore, CYP72A63 of Medicago truncatula, which has high sequence similarity to CYP72A154, was also able to catalyze C-30 oxidation of β -amyrin. The authors stress the importance of the CYP72A subfamily proteins as triterpene-oxidizing enzymes in the production of the sweetener glycyrrhizin.


Glycyrrhizin of liquorice [124]

According to Insbrucker and Burdock 2006 liquorice has glycyrrhizin as main active component. It is used in foods, tobacco and has therapeutic applications. Glycyrrhizinates inhibit 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, an enzyme which inactivates cortisol and may produce hypermineralocorticoid-like effects if it is consumed over a log time at high concentrations. However, these effects are reversible when the consume is stopped. To avoid negative effects, the authors suggest an acceptable daily intake of 0.015-0.229 mg glycyrrhizin/kg body weight/day.

Safety tests have shown that glycyrrhizin is not teratogenic or mutagenic but has anti-genotoxic activities. Licorice is less bioavailable and thus less active than glycyrrhizin.

Safety of glycyrrhetinic acid, glycyrrhizic aciud its salts and [125]

The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel in 2007 assessed the safety of glycyrrhetinic acid and its salts and esters and glycyrrhizic acid and its salts and esters used as cosmetic ingredients or as flavoring agents. Glycyrrhetinic acid and glycyrrhizic acid and metabolites are mostly excreted in the bile, with very little excreted in urine. There are indications that babies whose mother consumed > 500 mg/wk of glycyrrhizic acid were more likely to be born before 38 weeks. Glycyrrhizic acid is cytotoxic at high doses and ingestion can have physiological effects, however, there is little acute, short-term, subchronic, or chronic toxicity. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in the current practices of use and concentration.

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